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Hardwood Defect Guides

The Wisconsin Forestry Center is developing ​photographic guides to defects in hardwood tree species. The guides are intended as a resource to assist foresters and loggers in understanding ​the impacts of externally visible defects on internal conditions in a tree.​​ Understanding the impact of external defects on the quality of lum​ber inside a tree is of prime importance for foresters when developing stand prescriptions and marking timber. ​The Foresters’ Photographic Guide to Stem Defects in Hard Maple was published in 2023, and a guide to defects in red oak will be released in late 2024.

PHOTOGRAPHIC GUIDE TO DEFECTS IN HARD MAPLE

Hard maple represents both one of the highest volume and highest value timber species in the Lake States. The 55-page maple defect guide feature​s full-color photos depicting how a defect moves through a log, board-by-board.​ The guide describes wound ​response in trees and documents the impacts from the following types of defects: butt defects, cavities, tearouts, maple borer, bird peck, included bark, seams, epicormic sprouts, and remnant branches. ​​Each defect is depicted with images of the tree’s exterior as well as how the defect appears on milled boards.

ORDER THE GUIDE

Cost: $20/each. Free shipping!​

Discounted price of $18/each available for Wisconsin SFI members. Please list your organization in your order information.​

How to Order: ​

  1. Order online.​
  2. Or send this fillable order form​ along with check pay​ment to: 
Wisconsin Forestry Center
Attn: Maple Defect Guide
800 Reserve St.
UW-Stevens Point
Stevens Point, WI 54481​

PHOTOGRAPHIC GUIDE TO DEFECTS IN NORTHERN RED OAK

Northern red oak (Quercus rubra) is an economically important species in the Lake States. Of the species in this defect guide series, hard maple is extraordinary at compartmentalizing wounds, while northern red oak is more moderate. This guide will document impacts from the following types of defects: butt defects, epicormic sprouts, co-dominant stems, tearouts, suppressed growth, logging equipment damage, seams, and insect damage. Trees for this guide were selected from a site in Shawano County.

This project was completed thanks to three research assistant interns in the UW-Stevens Point College of Natural Resources. View their presentations from the 2024 CNR Student Research Symposium.


PROJECT PARTNERS

This project was made possible through support from the following entities: