White-tailed Deer - Range

White-tailed deer can be found from southern Canada all the way down to South America (De la Rosa-Reyna, X.F. et al 2012). The home range of white-tailed deer can vary in different regions based on food and cover availability and human disturbance during different times of the year.  Usually, their home range is less than one square mile throughout the majority of the year (Walter et al 2009). During the breeding season, males will in most cases venture outside of their core home range in search of potential breeding opportunities.  In a study done in Maryland, it was found that 63% of bucks ventured at least .31 miles outside of their core home range during the breeding season (Karns et al 2011).


          They can inhabit anything from forest, plains, desert, tropical rainforests, scrub lands, mountains and they even live in the city.  White-tailed deer prefer to bed in areas with thick cover where they can seek cover from predators and the elements. They usually choose an area within a close proximity to a food source where they can gain the proper nutrition for growth, fawn development and antler growth.  Females usually stay in a specific area close to food sources for their fawns while males tend to seek the thickest cover.
The areas White-tailed deer use for habitat may also shift with the seasons and the rut.  The season of the year is likely to change the face of the area the deer inhabit, and food and water may be located in different areas throughout the year thus moving the deer.  The rut or White-tailed deer breeding season also tends to displace them as they seek and chase potential mates.